AICAR (AICA ribonucleotide) description
The peptide AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside; or often also called as AICA ribonucleotide) is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate. It is an analogue of adenosine monophosphate and plays a vital role in the metabolism regulation. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) consists of a phosphate group, sugar ribose and nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine, and performs an important function in many cellular metabolic processes and is converted to ADP and / or ATP. AMP is also part of RNA synthesis, and is present in all known life forms.
Both adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and AICAR are able to stimulate AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity. AICAR is used clinically mainly for the treatment and protection against ischemic heart damage, and was first used in medicine in the 1980s as a method to maintain blood flow to the heart during surgery. Recently, AICAR has also been shown to be a potential possible treatment for diabetes by increasing tissue metabolic activity by altering the physical composition of muscles.
How does AICAR work
According to scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects, AICAR’s functionality is linked to preventing the production of the enzymes Adenosine kinase (ADK) and Adenosine deaminase (ADA). This process ultimately acts to stimulate glucose uptake and boost the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases α and β in skeletal and muscular tissue. Along the way, it has been shown to block apoptosis by lowering the production of oxygen compounds that are located within the cell. These processes ultimately lead to boost in blood flow regulation, which in turn enables an animal test subject to experience an improved rate of homeostasis.
AICAR boosts endurance and increases rate of decomposition of adipose tissue
AICA Ribonucleotide’s functionality has allowed scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has been able to determine that AICAR peptide could be responsible for several boosted functional processes, such as a boost of endurance and an increase at the rate adipose tissue is broken down. It has also been determined that the peptide’s capacity to increase blood flow can allow it to be a theoretic treatment in the aftermath of an ischemic injury. AICAR is able to enormously increase performance, up to an incredible 40-50% compared to conventional endurance performance.
AICAR possible benefits and effects
- AICAR is used clinically to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injuries
- AICAR can reduce the frequency and size of myocardial infarction in humans by up to 25%
- AICAR has a strong ability to treat metabolic disorders and diseases in humans, including diabetes
- AICAR is able to enormously increase performance, up to an incredible 40-50% compared to conventional endurance performance
AICAR possible side effects
- Too much activation of AMPK or its activation in the wrong tissue can cause serious side effects, including neurodegeneration, or prevent cell division.
- AICAR has not been adequately studied and other side effects and risks are possible
In scientific and clinical studies, the dose of AICAR is often reported as 10-20 mg / 1 kg body weight per day with minimal side effects. Extremely high doses of AICAR can be dangerous as they can affect blood flow to the heart.