Melanotan 2 description
Melanotan 2 (also marked as Melanotan II) is a synthetically produced variant of a peptide hormone naturally produced in the body that stimulates melanogenesis, a process responsible for pigmentation of the skin. This peptide hormone, called alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone or MSH, activates certain melanocortin receptors in the process of exerting its effects. Indeed, MSH also exerts potent influence over lipid metabolism, appetite, and sexual libido via these melanocortin receptors. As a result, Melanotan 2 has been shown in studies to exhibit appetite suppressant, lipolytic, and libido-enhancing effects in addition to promoting skin tanning.
α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Analogue
α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a naturally occurring endogenous melanotan peptide hormone of the melanocortin family, which is considered to be the most important of the melanocyte-stimulating hormones when it comes to stimulating melanogenesis, a process which in mammals is responsible for hair and skin pigmentation. α-MSH also plays a role in feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, and sexual activity (Bremelanotide and Melanotan 2). α-MSH is a nonselective agonist of melanocortin receptors MC1, MC3, MC4 and MC5. Melanotan 1 and Melanotan 2 activate the MC1 receptor, which is responsible for effects on skin pigmentation. Melanotan 2 and PT-141 both stimulate the MC3 and MC4 receptors which are responsible for the regulation of appetite, metabolism, and sexual behavior.
Melanotan protects skin against harmful effects of UV radiation
Melanotan 2 has been researched extensively for use in protecting against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight due to its melanogenesis-stimulating properties. Additionally, Melanotan 2 and a similar synthetically produced variant, known as PT-141, have been studied at length as a potential remedy for the treatment of sexual dysfunction; specifically, male erectile dysfunction.
The Development of Melanotan 2
The initial creation of the synthetic Melanotan 2 peptide can be credited to the University of Arizona. During the course of research aimed at developing a defense against skin cancer, focus was placed on developing a method of stimulating natural melanogenesis, or the natural production of melanin in the skin, without direct exposure to the potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Initially, University of Arizona researchers attempted to directly administer the naturally occurring hormone alpha-MSH in order to elicit this desired result. Although this strategy exhibited promising results, it was determined that the naturally occurring MSH had a prohibitively short half-life to be of realistic use as a therapeutic remedy. However, the positive results gleaned from MSH administration encouraged further research into the development of Melanotan 1 and Melanotan 2, which exhibit similar effects whilst possessing an extended half-life for functional therapeutic utilization.
Melanotan 2 increases libido
Melanotan and Melanotan 2 are both analogs of the peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that tend to induce skin tanning. Unlike Melanotan 1, Melanotan 2 has been shown to have aphrodisiac properties, the additional effect of increasing libido. Melanotan 2 is a cyclic heptapeptide analog of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH).
Melanotan 2 supports fat burning and weight loss
The effects of Melanotan 2 on the diet and food intake of the laboratory mice have also been investigated. It has been demonstrated that the central melanocortin (MC) has been activated by melanotan 2 when fed and induced in the mice. The six-day treatment of Melanotan 2 has shown that the peptide actually reduced the body weight and the adipose tissue in the viscera of the mice and suppressed the caloric intake of the organism. This has implications in clinical applications of the possible treatment to reduce carbohydrate or calorie intake especially for the overweight and the obese. Furthermore, the same study has also demonstrated that there was a sustained increase in the available oxygen consumption in obese animals. Melanotan 2 also helped reduced the level of serum insulin and the cholesterol levels when compared with the control treatments. Furthermore, it has been suggested that melanotan 2 actually lowers the level of acetylcholine A caboxylase expression and even prevented the reduction of carnitine and palmitoltransferase I mRNA in muscle-type tissues by pair-feeding in the muscles of the obese rats. Moreover, the Melanotan 2 peptide actually increased the fat catabolism in the muscles and even improved the cholesterol metabolism.
Melanotan 2 vs PT-141 Bremelanotide differents
PT-141 Bremelanotide does not stimulate the MC1 receptor (as melanotan does). A few synthetic analogues of α-MSH have been investigated for their apparent photoprotective effects against ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, namely Melanotan (afamelanotide) and Melanotan II, referred to as Melanotan 2. Bremelanotide, another analogue of α-MSH similar to Melanotan 2, is currently under development for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. All of these melanotan peptides have significantly greater potencies than α-MSH, but with distinctive selectivity peptide profiles.
Melanotan 2 benefits and effects
- Melanotan 2 effectively helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV rays
- Melanotan 2 can help protect the skin from skin cancer
- Melanotan 2 can help reduce body fat by hunger suppressant
- Melanotan 2 increases libido
Melanotan 2 possible side effects
- Nausea and vomiting
- Burning and redness around the side of application
- High blood pressure and headache
Melanotan 2 dosage
Optimal dose of Melanotan 2 is often reported as 10 mcg of Melanotan 2 per 1 kg body weight for day.